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September 5, 2003

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FLORIDA JEWISH NEWS, SEPTEMBER 5, 2003 PAGE 11 Center for Sport and the school year on good about sn't good about Three-time Olympic medalist Lenny will head the of judges, which also well-known author Rabbi Harold submitting essays asked to incorporate a sh values or teachings from the or other Jewish texts their response. ~ing essays among those in grades 5- 7 and grades 8 - 10 during 2003-2004/5764 will be awarded U.S. Savings Bonds. In addition, those schools or organizations with the greatest number of essay submissionswill receiveacash award for use in Jewish sports programming. "I am extremely excited about this essay contest and about having a chance to be personally involved in this project," said Krayzelburg, who set Olympic and world records while earning three gold medals in 2000, and is currently training for the 2004 Games in Athens. "Sports have been an inte~ gral part of my life and the development of my character. From my own experience there are things I believe to be more apparent in sports than in other walks of life. Inviting students to write about how they view sports will hopefully help them appreciate the im- portance and significance of sports in their own lives as well as in society at large, be- sides leading them to new in- sights regarding their Jewish identity. I am really looking forward to reading the essays." Also serving as judges are Ed Leibowitz, assistant men's basketball coach at Montclair State University; Brent Novoseisky, former profes- sional football player with the Minnesota Vikings and the Chicago Bears; Josh Pastner, assistant men's basketball coach, University of Arizona; and Dr. Judy Van Raalte, presi- dent-elect of the Exercise and Sport Psychology Division of the American Psychological Association, professor of psy- chology at Springfield College and a former Maccabiah Games participant. Winning essays will appear in a future issue of The Jewish Sports Connection, which is published by the Center for Sport and Jewish Life four times a year. In a previous essay contest addressing how Judaism sport are mutually enriching in the lives of student-athletes, Ryan Gorcey, a high school athlete from Camarillo, Calif won first place andAaron Skolnick, a member of the cross-coun- try and track and field teams at Brandeis University, earned second place. Application forms may be obtained by contacting or by sending a self-addressed stamped envelope to: The Jew- ish Sports Connection, P.O. Box 66461, St. Petersburg, FL 33736. The deadline for sub- mitting essays is Oct. 15, 2003. LENNYKRAYZELBURG By Edwin Black ~TAWASHINGTON, D.C. )~Hitler victimized an rn: Ire continent and exter- . ~ted millions in his ques~ IW~S -called "Master Race. w~'~e World thought Hitler .'~ mad and barely under- ~ood his rationales But the ~rllcept of a white, blond- di red, blue-eyed master Nor- . Y race was not Hitler's" The ~ It~ was created in the United ~'~tes two to three decades ~'~,er, the product of the """erican eugenics move- rnent. was the racist pseudoscience de- away all hu- to a Nordic ste- philosophy was iational policy sterilization and laws, as well as restrictions, en- 27 states. eugenics coer- some 60,000 barred the mar- thousands, forcibly thousands in md persecuted in ways we earning. studied American and rationales to legitimize his hatred and anti- by medicalizing it, it in a facade. cs would have been bizarre par- it not been for by corpo- specifi- ie Institution, Foundation railroad in with 'tom uni- ~Such as Harvard, Yale aked and to serve eugen- aims. Institution Invented the Ameri- ent when it estab- complex mg Harbor on This complex of index ~Americans carefully of fami- and whole Spring Harbor, agitated natron s sooal and associa- for- charities, such Bureau of to seek out Jewish and other immigrants and subject them to deportation, confinement or forced sterilization. The Rockefeller Founda- tion helped found and fund the German eugenics pro- gram, and even funded the program that ultimately sent JosefMengele intoAuschwitz. The Rockefeller Founda- tion, the Carnegie Institution, Cold Spring Harbor Labora- tory, and the Max Planck In- stitute --- the successor to the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute -- all gave unlimited access and unstinting assistance in the course of this investiga- tion. These organizations all have worked hard to help the world discover their pasts and have set an example of phil- anthropic openness. Long before the advent of America's leading philanthro- pies, eugenics was born as a scientific curiosity in the Vic- torian age. In 1863, Sir Francis Galton theorized that if talented people married only other tal- ented people, the result would be measurably better off- spring. At the turn of the last cen- tury, Galton's ideas were im- ported into the United States just as Gregor Mendel's prin- ciples of heredity were redis- covered. American eugenic advocates believed that Men- delian concepts explaining the color and size of peas, corn and cattle also governed the social and intellectual character of man. In the early twentieth cen- tury, America was reeling from the upheaval of massive immigration and torn by post- Reconstruction chaos, and race conflict was everywhere. Elitists, utopians and so- called "progressives" fused their smoldering race fears and class bias with their de- sire to make a better world, reinventing Galton's eugen- ics as a repressive and racist ideology. Their intent was to populate the earth with blond, blue-eyed Nordic types who were tall, strong and talented. In the process, the move- ment intended to subtract Blacks, Indians, Hispanics, East Europeans, Jews, dark- haired hill folk, poor people and the infirm. How would they do it? By identifying so-called "defec- tive" family trees and subject- ing them to lifelong segrega- tion and sterilization pro- grams to kill their bioodlines. The grand plan was literally to wipe away the reproduc- tive capability of the "unfit," those deemed weak and infe- rior. During the 1920s, Carnegie Institution eugenic scientists cultivated deep personal and professional relationships with Germany's fascist eu- genicists. In 1924, when Hitler wrote Mein Kampf, he frequently quoted American eugenic ideology and openly displayed a thorough knowl- edge of American eugenics and its phraseology. Hitler proudly told his corn- fades just how closely he fol- lowed American eugenic leg- islation. Hitler's struggle for a su- perior race became a mad cru- sade for a Master Race, ex- changing the American term "Nordic" for "Germanic" or "Aryan." Race science, racial purity and racial dominance became the driving force be- hind Hitler's Nazism. Nazi doctors would become the unseen generals in Hitler's war against the Jews and other Europeans deemed inferior. Doctors would cre- ate the science, devise the eugenic formulas, and even hand-select the victims for sterilization, euthanasia and mass extermination. During the Reich's first de- cade, eugenicists across America welcomed Hitler's plans as the logical fulfillment of their own decades of re- search and effort. Beyond the scientific roadmap, America used its money to fund and help found Germany's eugenic institu- tions. By 1926, Rockefeller had donated some $410,000 --al- most $4 million in today's dol- lars -- to hundreds of Ger- man researchers. In May 1926, for example, Rockefeller awarded $250,000 to the German Psychiatric In- stitute of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, which became the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Psychiatry. Among its leading psychiatrists was Ernst Rudin, who became directorand even- tually an architect of Hitler's systematic medical repression. Another in the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute's complex of eugenic institutions was the Institute for Brain Re- search. A grant of $317,000 allowed the institute to con- struct a major building and take center stage in German race biology. The brain insti- tute received additional grants from the Rockefeller Foundation during the next several years. The brain institute -- also led by Rudin -- became a prime director and recipient of murderous experimenta- tion and research conducted on Jews and others. he Beginning in 1940, thou- sands of Germans taken from old age homes, mental insti- tutions and other custodial facilities were systematically gassed. In all, between 50,000 and 100,000 were killed. A special recipient of Rockefeller funding was the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Hered- ity and Eugenics in Berlin. For decades, American eu- genicists had craved twins to advance their research into heredity. The institute was now prepared to undertake such research on an unprec- edented level. At the time of Rockefeller's endowment, Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer, a hero in American eugenics circles, functioned as a head of the Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugen- ics. Rockefeller funding of the Institute for Anthropology continued directly and through other research con- duits during Verschu~r's early tenure. In 1935, Verschuer left the Institute to form a rival eu- genic facility in Frankfurt. Research on twins in the Third Reich exploded, backed up by government decrees mobiliz- ing all twins. At about that time, Verschuer wrote in Der Erbarzt, a eugenic doctors' journal he edited, that Germany's war would yield a "total solution to the Jewish problem." On May 30, 1943, Verschuer's long-time assis- tant, Josef Mengele, arrived at Auschwitz. Mengele began taking twins from the box- cars arriving at the camp and performing beastly experi- ments, writing up the reports and sending the paperwork back to Verschuer's institute for evaluation. Rockefeller executives never knew of Mengele. With few exceptions, the founda- tion had ceased all eugenic studies in Nazi-occupied Eu- rope before World War II erupted in 1939. But by that time the die already had been cast. Edwin Black is the "New York Times" bestselling au- thor of the award-winning "IBM and the Holocaust"and the just released "War Against the Weak '~ ("Four Walls Eigh t Windows"), from which this article is adapted. He can be reached via i ii i !iii @,! 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