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May 16, 1980     Heritage Florida Jewish News
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Israel, Zionism But Supported Jewry Polakoff close of World War 14. 12,000 Jews survived in the Three political forces concentration camps, the note: Joseph warred for control of Prisoner of War centers, as served as the Yugoslavia when the war members of Tito's forces, and Officer at the broke out -- Tito's Com- in hiding places More than in Yugoslavia munist-led partisans, the half of them left for Israel in that period, his Monarchists headed by Gen. 1948. was the Mikhailovich and the fascist The present population is Distribution Ustashis allied with the estimated at about 6,000 -- representative invading Nazis. the same as it has been for 35 Yugoslavia's anti-Semites, years. They are dispersed in numerous and never about 30 communities in (JTA)-- dormant, spewed increasing Yugoslavia's general popula- and extraordinary venom with the rise of tion of about 22 million. About Yugoslavia's Hitlerism, especiallyinCroatia, 1,300 live in Belgrade, 1,000 ) Broz Tito, who which had a large Jewish in Zagreb, 900 in Sarajevo, I at the age of 87 community in Zagreb, and in and fewer than 500 in is paralleled by Slovenia which had few, if any Subotica. relationship Jews. but intense anti- and Israel but he Semitism. Along with Jews in other to harbor Yugoslavia's Jewish areas of the Balkans, Jewish in a country population totaled about inhabitants in Servia, oneofsix at times 85,000 on the eve of World of Yugoslavia's republics, venomous in War II. Almost the whole gained legal emancipation in community was destroyed by the last quarter of the 19th his record 1941 in the Nazi invasion. Century that enabled them to support The Ustashis wantonly rise somewhat from the lowly hostility toward killed thousands of them. regard characteristic towards Hunted by the Ustashis and them in Eastern Europe for Nazis and scorned by the generations known to have Monarchists, Jews naturally Historically, the earliest is now Yugoslavia were inclined toward the traces of Jewry in what is now -- ruins ,that-- partisans. Many joined the Yugoslavia are seen in the partisan forces and became remains of a First Century did not reach the among the most daring of the synagogue in the pre-Chdstian the country's fighters against Tito's Greek town of Stobi near military, and enemies Skopje, the capital of the life or in popular Republic of Macedonia, and Marshal Tito's Large Emigration To israel ruins of a Third Century with the When the war ended, about synagogue at Salana off the the two countries enjoyed good relations until about 1956 when, having forged a deep friendship and alliance with Egypt's Gamal Abdel Nasser, he began forming the "unaligned" Third World. Yugoslav relations with Israel deteriorated. In 1967, with Nasser humiliated by the Six-Day War, Tito broke relations with Israel and virtually all communi- cations. Only slight com- mercial exchanges have taken place since. In international forums, Yugoslavia's representatives have consistently berated !srael and Zionism and joined in condemning them. Yugoslavia voted for the infamous United Nations resolution equating Zionism with racism. This is in contrast to Rumania, which did' not break off diplomatic relations but on the contrary raised the status of Israers legation in Bucharest to an embassy, which Israel reciprocated in Tel Aviv. In the voting on the UN anti-Zionist resolution, Rumania officially is recorded as "absent." Tito's government is not known to have made any serious attempt to restore relations with Israel or adopt a neutral stand between the  B Adriatic coast in Dalmatia. Soviet Union and Israel or the ,iiii  Jewish colonies existed in Arab states and Israel. "nto. it is II.l l'l medieval ages in Serbia, understood, did not have the 1" r " 'U Slovenia and Croatia. Jews close relations with Anwar from Spain and Portugal in the Sadat that he had with Nasser.  Inquisition period migrated to t!l! v, i I Dalmatia, in the l4th Century, Jewish Communal Life and passed through Du- Supported J' brovnik into the hinterland and Within Yugoslavia, however, . on to Bulgaria and Greece. harshness towards Israel was " Eastern European Jews rarely pronounced and Jewish began arriving in the 18th communal life was supported. Century, including Hungar- The guided Yugoslav media I I,"i  ,I ians wh went t the Republic has nt been stridently anti" ' of Bosnia-Herzagovina. Israel nor strongly pro-Arab despite Tito's ties with the Attitude Toward Jews, Israel Arab world and Yugoslavia's Under Tito, Yugoslavia large Moslem population, ! i lil!i;iel  established equal rights and about 11 percent. religious freedom for Jews. In a general population of The government helped about 22 million, the 6,000 restore synagogues and remaining Jews form a communal buildings and miniscule minority but they extolled Jewish supporters of serve greatly out of proportion lll ,lllllr. t the partisan cause, to their numbers in No opposition was government and the pro- ,e generated against Jewish fessions. ,.T-i emigration to Israel except Tito encouraged support II that Tito asked his foremost for Jewish requirements. It is l governmental, military, the only Communist country scientific and journalistic in which the American Joint personnel to remain with him Distribution Committee has to help in rebuilding and served without interruption reorganizing the country from since World War II ended in the ravages of war. 1945. Tito recognized Israel and Yugoslavia has been alleyway tn Dubrounik, still named contains one of the oldest synagogues in 1352. Encyclopedia Judaica Okays Funds (JTA)-- Relations on the authori- for the fiscal I next Oct. I. has additional $461 Io Israel. provides in loans for and million id to a grant of A similar Pending in the Special to HERITAGE Readers THE JERUSALEM POST INTERNATIONAL EDITION t10E 59th St. New York, NY 10022 [] Please deliver 52 issues of THE JERUSALEM POST International Edition for one full year, and send me the NEW DRY BONES Book My check for $35.D0 is enclosed [] Please deliver 26 issues for six months My check for $1900 is enclosed. E 18 4 NAME ADDRESS CITY STATE ZIP HERITAGE. Florida Jewish News, May 16, I. Page 5 - THE GREAT Synagogue of Zagreb, Yugoslavia (shown above), built in 1897, was destroyed by the Nazis in 1941. without a rabbi since 1968. Jewish life is largely secular but it is preserved under the country's Federation of Jewish Communities. Kindergartens and Jewish choirs are maintained in Belgrade and Zagreb. The Ashkenazi synagogue in Belgrade, used as a brothel under Nazi occupation, has been restored by the govern- ment and the JDC. Tito and other Yugoslav leaders contributed funds for its restorations. The Serbian Orthodox Church donated pews. The Sephardi syna- gogue had been blown up by the Nazis. In Belgrade's old Jewish Quarter near the Danube is "Baruch Brothers Street" and the Baruch Cultural Center named for Isa, Bora and Jozi Baruch and their sisters Shela and Bela. All five, children of a poor tailor, were fighters in the resistance against Nazi occupation. Isa, an engineer, led an underground militia and has been proclaimed a national hero. Bora was a lawyer and Josi was a painter and teacher. Another Yugoslav here is General Veija Todorovic, born Shmuel Lehrer, who fought with the partisans. High Honors For A Sephardic Jew Highest national honors have been bestowed on Moshe Pijade, a Sephardic Jew and a painter and author, who became the first president of the Yugoslav National Assembly under nto. Encyclopedia Judok His tomb is in "the ancient Kalmegdan Fortress at the confluence of the Danubeand Sava Rivers in Belgrade. He is one of the few Yugoslavs buried in the shrine reserved for national heroes. Pijade was one of Tito's closest associates. For his Communist activities, he was imprisoned 14 years during the reigns of King Alexander and Prince Paul. In World War II, he was hailed as among the most courageous of the partisan fighters. Ater the war, he represented Yugoslavia at the peace conference and helped draft Yugoslavia's constitution. One of Belgrade's principal streets is named for him. In Belgrade, also, are a Jewish museum and the Jewish federation's office. In Jew Street, within the walled city of Dubrovnik, is the third oldest synagogue in Europe, established in 1352, and cared for by the survivors of the Talentine family whose forebears came from Spain to the city during the Inquisition. In Sarajevo are a Sephardi synagogue and an old cemetery. Its Jewish Museum contains an 800-year-old menorah brought from Cordoba in Spain. In Sarajevo's National Museum is the famous illuminated Haggadah that was carried to the city in the 13th Century by Italian Jews. Before the museum was established, the Haggadah, which Yugoslavs had secreted from the Nazis, was safe- guarded in a vault barred by three locked doors. /can de00'ign w,00rehou/e drastically reduced Scandinavian Fumlture Leather Easy Chair, Dark Brown Stained Frame. $199 Open Dally except Sunday 9am-51 556 Oougk= RcL 00tamonte Phone 862-9775