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HERITAGE FLORIDA JEWISH NEWS, MARCH 8, 2013 PAGE 19A Sanctions tions. If passed in Congress, Union oil embargo earlier in Further meetings between Iran. "As a result, Israelis are the bill will also require U.S. 2012, the Telegraph reported. Iran and the P5+l nations are having a domestic discussion From page 1A SecretaryofStateJohnKerryto Perhaps most revealing is the scheduledinlstanbulinMarch [rather] than an international decideifthelslamicRevolution- factthatinthefirstl0monthsof and again in Kazakhstan in one," Bermansaid. the tipping point," as Iran is ary Guard Corps (IRGC) should 2012, Iran's currency, the Rial, April. Another group of bipartisan surprisinglyresilient, hesaid, beconsideredaforeignterrorist lostmorethan80percentofits If Iran shows no willing- U.S. Senators introduced a Though Iran has consis- organization and be subjected exchange value, ness to compromise, then resolution Feb. 28 to try to tently deniedits enrichment of to additional sanctions. Sanctions are essentially sanctions against the Islamic changethisperceptioninlsrael. uraniumisintendedtoproduce "Wewill continue to tighten "a bargaining chip, to make Republic should be tightened If Israel is "compelled to take a nuclear weapon, in early the screws on Iran until the Iran'spositionweakerintalks," because at this rate, without military action in self-defense, February the International regime abandons its nuclear Meir Javedanfar, an Iranian- bolstered sanctions, the U.S. the United States government Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) weapons program. I hope this Israeli Middle East analyst and andother countries"could end should stand with Israel and issued a report that detailed crisis can be resolved through authorofTheNuclearSphinxof up strengthening the hardlin- provide diplomatic, military the country's installation of diplomacy, but words cannot Tehran: MahmoudAhmadine- ers," Javedanfar told JNS.org. and economic support to the IR-2mcentrifugesattheNatanz be a substitute for action, and jad and the State of Iran, told "The Iranian government is government of Israel in its plant, where itwas planning to the U.S. must keep all options JNS.org.Lastweek'sdiscussion absolutely being difficult, but defense of its territory, people install more than 2,000 such on the table," Engel said in a with the P5+l nations yielded you have to wait to see how and existence," the resolution centrifuges, statement released Feb. 27. an offer that promised Iran the Iranian governmentreacts states. The newly proposed Nu- In the meantime, four UN the easing of certain banking after each round of talks," he U.S. Sen. Lindsey Graham clear Iran Prevention Act of resolutions, and existing sanc- restrictions and sanctions on added. (R-SC)announcedthemeasure 2013 would increase President tions, aresaidtobecripplingthe its goid and precious metals, in Berman believes that the inapressconferencealongwith Barack Obama's ability to pro- Iranian economy. In July2012, exchange for suspending ura- sanctions"areatacticalsuccess the chairman of the Senate hibit Iranian imports that the the New York Times reported nium enrichment beyond 20 but a strategic failure"because Foreign Relations Committee, West suspects Iran is using as thatIranhadalreadylostabout percent and allowing the IAEA the Iranian regime has "shown U.S.Sen.RobertMenendez(D- a front for nuclear weapons $10 billion alone in revenue to monitor Iranian nuclear more resilience than a lot of NJ),andSens.ChuckSchumer development, such as mined from lost oil export revenues, facilities more frequently, people thought" in terms of (D-NY), Susan Collins (R-ME), metals or energy equipment. At that time, such exports had '"We are heading for goals continuing uranium enrich- John Hoeven(R-ND),BobCasey The legislation would further been cut by more than a 25 that will be satisfactory for ment despite those sanctions. (D-PA) and Richard Blumen- enforce the existing sanction- percent since the beginning bothsides.Iamveryoptimistic In Israel, where Prime Min- thai (D-CT). The measure, ing of bank transactions with of last year. An internal Israeli and hopeful," Iranian Foreign ister Benjamin Netanyahu has however, is "not a green light Iran. Foreign Ministry document Minister Ali Akbar Salehi told long been alarmed by the pos- to Israel to do anything other The legislation calls on the leaked last September showed Austrianbroadcaster ORFdur- sibility of nuclear Iran, there is than defend itself," Graham U.S to work with European that Iranian energy exports ingavisittoViennaforaUnited uncertainty as to whether the said.The senators hope to pass allies toward the cessation of had fallen by 50 percent since Nations conference, according U.S.will backthe country up if the resolution before Obama's Euro-denominated transac- the imposition of a European to Israel Hayom. it takes military action against visit to Israel in March. While Netanyahu has said the Iranian nuclear threat is the top priority for his next term, only 12 percent of respondents in a poll conducted by the Times of Israelin January chose Iranas the most important issue facing the next government. Javedanfar believes a military intervention should be "out of the question for now" in Iran. "If Israel attacks them or America attacks them without giving diplomacy or sanctions a chance, then they will make a bomb, they have nothing to lose," he told JNS.org. It is fair to say that the U.S. is "pretty unserious about Iran," BermantoldJNS.org.Chinaalso continues trading with Iran, importing more than 400,000 barrels of Iranianoiladay.About 70 Chinese businesses currently operate in Iran, according to a recent report in the Iranian news agency IRNA. Countries like China, Bermanwamed, are continuing to do business with Iran because they are simply waiting until Iran enriches enough uranium that the world will simply be forced to return to normal trade relations with the Islamic Republic. Web From page 2A tions and religious facilities... More specifically, manifesta- from access to the content, tions could also target the according to the New York state of Israel, conceived as Times. Jewish collectivity," the defini- Additional broad laws have tion reads. been passed on racism and Thoughthatdefinitionwas cyber-hate. The Council of never legally binding, various Europe's Additional Protocol international bodies, several to the Cybercrime Conven- lawenforcementagenciesand tion was passed in 2003 and European courts have used it became enforceable in 2006 intheir investigations. Itis es- after receiving the required sentiallymeantto"helppolice number of signatures. The forces who are monitoring protocol criminalized racist anti-Semitism onthe ground and xenophobicacts commit- to have a better understand- ted through computer sys- ing of what anti-Semitism terns. The European Frame- is," Kenneth Stern, the AJC's workDecisiononCombatting specialist on anti-Semitism Racism and Xenophobia was and extremism, told JNS.org. then passed in 2008. Under the First Amend- In 2005, the European ment, hate speech in the Union Monitoring Centre U.S. must be likely to cause on Racism and Xenophobia violence or harm before it can (EUMC)'sWorkingDefinition be deemed criminal. But in ofanti-Semitismwasreleased, the European Union, speech defining the phenomenon as can be prohibited even if it "a certain perception of Jews, is only abusive, insulting or which may be expressed as likely to disturb public order, hatred toward Jews." noted Talia Naamat, legal re- "Rhetorical and physical searcheratthe KantorCenter manifestations of anti-Semi- fortheStudyofContemporary tism are directed toward Jew- European Jewry in Jerusalem. ish or non-Jewish individuals There are many laws on and/or their property, toward Holocaust denialinEurope, in- Jewish community institu- cluding in Germany, Belgium, and Austria, where British Holocaust denier David Irving was convicted and imprisoned in 2006. In Spain, Holocaust denial was a criminal violation until 2007, when a court ruled in the case ofneo-Nazi activist Pedro Valera that Holocaust denial could not be punished with imprisonment because the act falls within free speech. But in January, Spain's justice minister proposed a new bill that would make Holocaust denial a criminal offense if it incites violence. The bill is expected to be approved later this year. "I believe this case best encapsulates the debate (in Europe) between freedom of expression versus incitement to hatred, as well as the vary- ing degrees of protection from hate speech," Naamat told JNS.org. But frequently, such European laws appear as part of a broader "incitement to ra- cial, ethnic or religious hatred or discrimination," or as part of the general prohibition of genocide, she said. In the Netherlands, the Dutch penal code includes a broad anti-discrimination provision, " so, anti-Semitic content in essence will be prosecuted if it's brought to the prosecutor as falling under the anti-discrimination legis- lation," Eissens said. Three cases were recently flied against Jemen de Kreek, a Dutch Holocaust denier who posted his material on several websites. Having already lost one case, he will face the other two this spring. In this case, Kreekis likely to be convicted as "his material is blatantly anti- Semitic," according to Eissens. The UK has only general legislation regarding harass- ment and discrimination, The Public Order act of 1986, which states that "a person who uses threatening words or behavior, or displays any written material which is threatening, is guilty of an offence if he intends thereby to stir up religious hatred." Other laws, the Protection from Harassment Act, the Malicious Communications Act, and the Racial and Reli- gious Hatred Act, were passed in subsequent years. "Our perspective is that things which are illegal of- fline should be illegal online," Dave Rich, spokesman for Community Security Trust, which conducted the Febru- ary survey on social media anti-Semitism in the UK, ac- cording to the International Business Times. "Racial abuse lawswere made from incidents in the street, not online." European laws on the issue, however, are not uniformly applied across the EU. Even the European Court of Hu- man Rights does not offer an accepted definition for "hate speech," instead offering only parameters bywhich prosecu- tors can decide if the "hate speech" is entitled to the pro- tection of freedom of speech. Prosecutors therefore exercise a great amount of discretion, as do policemen, who must classify the act as a hate crime or not, and judges, who must assess which action or speech is likely to disturb public order. "That assessment can be subjective," Naamat said. INACH's Eissens empha- sized that prosecuting anti- Semitism is"a thingwe do but not the only thing we do." The organization is also highly focused on counter-speech projects, education and pre- vention, though Eissens does believe that the law is neces- sary in some extreme cases. "It's a bit like the police ar- rests 20 people this week and the same people are back on the streets doing it again one month later, or they're joined by another 40; it doesn't mean that the police has to stop working," he said. Stern believes that it is gen- erally "more effective to have hateful speech marginalized than censored," particularly by having high-ranking offi. cials or politicians call it out. In 2005, Stern was part of a debate in the U.S. between Jewish groups on the issue of anti-Semitism online. One school of thought was in favor of removing anti-Semitic con- tent, the other side believed such content "is away to train kids in this new medium," on how to distinguish hateful speech from benign speech, he said. The bigger problem, Stern said, is when anti-Semitism, online or otherwise, is ex- pressed as normal, polite dinner conversation. "I'll be less worried if it's half a dozen neo-Nazis with tattoos sitting in a bar someplace," he said. Obsession From page 5A against racism. No other na- IsraelicaptainYossiBenayoun has reported that an upcom- tionalteaminthepost-war era during a 2006 match. Nor did ing match between Hungary children "Hitler Youth." has suffered from the preju- FIFA discipline the coach of and Romania may be played Because of Rudoren's gull- dice and discrimination that Norway's national team for inanemptystadium, because ibility, along with her pre- Israel has. I say this because urging, in 2010, a boycott of off ears that anti-Semitic and disposition to portray every Israel has had to put up with Israel. Meanwhile, the racist anti-Roma chanting will get social ill in Israel as an exis- racismnotjustfromopposing Arab boycott continues to out of control. tential or moral crisis for the fans, but from the governing hold sway; only this month, This June, Israel will host state, readersofherstorywere institutions of soccer as well. Itay Schechter, a striker with the European Under-21 soc- denied the crucial context The world of international English Premier League side cer championship. It will be to understand the events at soccerisorganizedbyregions. SwanseaCity, was prevented a wonderful opportunity to Beitar. Nowhere did she men- As a state in Asia, Israel's from joining his team at a watchthe stars of tomorrow, tion that one of Israel's most clubs and its national team training campin Dubai solely as well as showcasing the storied players is Walid Badir, should compete in the Asian because ofhis Israeli passport, vibrancy and tolerance of Is- an Arab citizen from Kafr region. In 1974, however, the None of these pertinent raelisoccer.Already, Boycott, Qasim, nor that the national Asian Football Confederation details made their way into Divestment and Sanctions team's roster contains Arab bowed to the pressure of the anyoftherecentreportingon (BDS) acti'lists are calling andMuslim stars like Beram Arab boycott by expelling Beitar Jerusalem. Norwould forthetournamenttobecan- Kayal and Maharan Radi. Israel. Not until the 1990s you know--unless, again, celled.Iliveinhopethatsome Critically, Rudoren failed to did Israeli soccer again find you are a soccer fan--that mention of this will make its no':e that ethnic integration an international home, this racism among supporters is wayintotheAmericanmedia. is the norm in Israeli soccer, time in Europe. a global problem, particularly But if it doesn't, please do us and that therefore Beitar's FIFA, internationalsoccer's in Europe. For example, I all a favor: ifyou won't under- racist minority fans are an governing body, did noth- have seen nothing in the New stand that racism in soccer is aberration, ing to confront this naked York Times about the refusal a long-established challenge To those of us who know Arab racism, just as it never of the supporters of Russian far beyond Israel's borders, the game of soccer, that is disciplined the coach of one team Zenit St. Petersburg to stop smearing Israel with in- hardly a revelation, especially of Europe's minor national permit their club's manage- nuendo, and stop insulting the asthestoryoflsrael'snational teams, Andorra, for yelling ment to sign a black player, sportthatbillionsofusaround sport is also a story of the fight "You are a nation of killers!" at Similarly, noAmerican outlet the world love with passion. Ben Cohen is the Shill- man Analyst for JNS.org. His writings on Jewish affairs and Middle Eastern politics have been published in Com- mentary, the New York Post, Ha'aretz, Jewish Ideas Daily and many other publications. Sudoku solution from page 7 357964128 489721365 216358974 123476589 798532641 645819237 971643852 864295713 532187496