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PAGE IOA HERITAGE FLORIDA JEWISH NEWS, JANUARY 16, 2009 Jewish life flourishes where Kazakh gulag once stood Michael J. Jordan The villa of the former commander of the Dolinka prison-labor camp is occupied today. By Michael J. Jordan to save her or her similarly devoted husband, Josef. They were swept up during the frenzy of Stalin's Great Terror, from 1937 to 1939. Josef was shot by a firing squad in 1938, and Liza was exiled by cattle car to Karaganda. Luchanskiy was sentenced to eight years in the vast net- work of forced-labor camps here, on the southern edge of Stalin's fearsome gulag. Enduring extreme cold, hun- ger and exhaustion, which afflicted her health ever after, Luchanskiy never let go of her faith in communism, her grandson says. "She never blamed the system, only Stalin," says Vilen Molotov-Luchanskiy, an internist who today heads the Jewish Cultural Center in Karaganda. As manyas 1.2 million Soviet citizens--spanning practically all the myriad ethnic groups nationwide were worked to death or near death in the 75 camps that comprised Kara- ganda.Amongthemwere many Jews, including many rabbis. "There is no separate story of Jews here in Stalin's gulag," offers Mikhail Kreichman, who teaches Jewish history and tradition in Astana. "Many, many other nations suffered in there." This is the final installment of a JTA series on Kazakh- stan. KARAGANDA, Kazakh- stan (JTA)--Liza Luchanskiy was born to a poor, Yiddish- speaking family in Berdi- chev, the historic, heavily Jewish city deep in the Pale of Settlement. Lured by Soviet promises of equality, she became a Communist true believer, working her way up to serve on a commit- tee in Siberia that targeted so-called enemies of the revolution. But her zeal wasn't enough The heart of the Karaganda slave labor machine was the railroad hub of Karaganda city, in central Kazakhstan. Once the camps were closed and emptied, it became a virtual "city of ex-convicts." Visiting the city today, rem- nants of that era can be felt still in the collective psyche and in the identity of the Jews that re- main, making the Karagandan community among the more unusual in the Diaspora. It may be the least assimilated Jewish community in Kazakhstan, which has some 15,000 to 20,000 Jews, because so many of the Jews here are children or grandchildren of rabbis and other traditional Jews sent to the Karaganda labor camps. The purges of the late 1930s Jews here say they share a special bond with their Kara- ganda neighbors because they all suffered together. "The pain that every fam- ily suffered unites us even today," says David Bitsadze, a taxi driver. Karagandahas alone monu- ment to its victims nestled within a modest park. Among the trees is a striking wooden memorial, part of it carved with a cross, an Islamic cres- cent and a Star of David. An- other part reveals tormented faces covered in barbed wire. A marble slab reads, "This soil is soaked with blood, covered by bones of the dead." The gulag kicked into high gear after World War II, as Moscow exploited its bottom- injected large numbers of Jews to Kazakhstan. Before that, the few Jews here either were descendants of Russian Jewish soldierswho settled in the area in the 19th century or frag- ments of Silk Road Bukharan Jews. Jewish life pulsates today in Karaganda, which has 1,500 registered Jews. Chabad- Lubavitch opened its second day school here in Kazakhstan. There is a rabbi in town. The community hosts an annual festival for Jewish youth that draws some 200 participants from around the region. Last Purim, some Jews from Kara- ganda took a four-hour bus ride to the Kazakh capital Astana to celebrate the holiday at a synagogue there. But the Jews here are best known for the painful history of Karaganda. When local Jews travel to other ex-Soviet republics, the mere mention of their hometown--now Kazakhstan's third-largest city--typically elicits the same reaction. " 'Your family was in this camp?' That's what they know about Karaganda," says Bela Kamenetskaya, the head of the local Hesed welfare office. "If they come here, they expect it to look like Auschwitz. They're surprised to see we have streets, city squares and an airport." less slave labor to rebuild a ravaged country. The region was home to four special camps renowned for brutality, as highlighted in Alexander Sol- zhenitsyn's landmark expose "The Gulag Archipelago." Stalin's prisoners, convicted as "enemies of the people," were shipped to the hinter- lands, typically for eight to 10 years, to toil in mines, factories or farming. In Karaganda, they extracted coal and copper, with some agriculture. Most died of starvation, disease or the cold. One camp here was desig- nated for the Wives of Traitors of the Motherland, housing women and their children after the husbands were shot. Still others were deported here as "internal exiles," restricted to living in certain villages. In a rare sign of resistance, rebellions erupted in late 1952, and again shortly after Stalin's death in 1953. The next year the camps were shuttered. Free to go, those who had family waiting for them back home left. Those who didn't stayed. In some cases their laid-off jailers lived nearby. Meanwhile, with the camps abolished, Karaganda turned boomtown. The 1960s saw a new wave of Jews: young pro- fessionals or recent graduates either ordered to the Soviet empire's outer reaches to fill a need, or seeking work op- portunities in the "virgin soil" of Kazakhstan. Jewish professors were instrumental in creating Karaganda's medical school, which became one of the Soviet Union's finest, says lo- cal Jewish activist Alexander Abramovich. "They knewtheywouldn'tbe deported from here,"Abramov- ich says with a smile. Today, little commemorates Karaganda's notorious past beyond the sleepy village of Dolinka, the administrative centerofthe camp network, 30 miles southwest of the city. On one side of the road to Dolinka is a former labor camp, recognizable by its watchtower--conveniently it's been converted into a prison for garden-variety criminals. On the other side is a village of yellow sandstone homes built exclusively for officers who ruled the gulag. In Dolinkaitself, abandoned barracks that once housed women are crumbling from age and neglect. The commander's villa is inhabited, though, with two satellite dishes planted in the frontyard.Amemorial mu- seum sees a trickle of somber visitors, many of whom have come to learn about the fate of loved ones. Moscow continues to with- hold many files, says museum director Marina Klyshnikova, perhaps because of sensitivity over the perpetrators. "Some of them are still alive," she says. Molotov-Luchanskiy says his grandmother spoke daily about her earlier life until she died in 1980 at age 81. Speak- ing Yiddish, she would tell him tales of the camp and of his grandfather. "She wanted me to know that life wasn't so simple, or so easy," Molotov-Luchanskiy says. "Hers was actually a story of a happy woman," he adds. "In life she had a great purpose, a great love and great suffering. She thought it was everything an ordinary Jewish girl could want." Taxes and laws axe ever-changing. Is your finandal advisor up-to-date? Is your money earning up to its potential? We are a group of finandal professionals with years of extensive experience in wealth preservation, product independent advice, financial and risk management, income producing strategies, retirement planning, and tax management* Call H 407-875-2674 for your complimentary initial assessment. ASSET MANAGEMENT P_A_R_._T ........ N ....... 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Each region in the country nominated one chapter to represent them. There are 17 regions. The COSUSY belongs to the HaNegev Region, which represents the southeast United States. Criteria included everything from the quality of programs to contributions to tikun olam to membership. COSUSY also won a communications award as well as a member- ship award, as it was one of the largest chapters with 104 members. Advisor Barbra Resnick and staff members Jeremy Michaelson and Steven Resnick, along with 22 COSUSY members were in Washington to receive the award on behalf of the chapter. Congregation Ohev Shalom celebrated this honor at Shabbat services on Jan. 2.