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PAGE 2A HERITAGE FLORIDA JEWISH NEWS, JANUARY 4, 2013 By Linda Gradstein The Media Line JERUSALEM--"They paved paradise, put up a parking lot," or in this case a highway. When Israel's National Roads Co. wanted to expand the main Tel Aviv-Jerusalem highway, they decided to first carry out an excavation to make sure they would not be paving over important archaeological finds. "This was a total surprise," Anna Eirikh, the director of the excavation told The Media By Rabbi Rachel Esserman The (Vestal, N.Y.) Reporter Jews and chocolate: Is there a connection? It's not unusual for Judaic scholars to pick offbeat subjects. In recent years, I've reviewed works about Jews and coffee, Jews and bagels, and Jews and ostrich feathers. So why not a book about Jews and chocolate? In "On the Chocolate Trail: A Delicious Adventure Connecting Jews, Religions, History, Travel, Rituals and Recipes to the Magic of Cacao" (Jewish Lights Publishing), Rabbi Deborah R. Prinz follows the history of chocolate and religion to North and South America, Europe and Israel. Her work is less a scholarly exploration than a quick, sweet (pun intended) look at interest- New archaeological finds shed light on First Temple period Line. "We knew there was a large Iron Age settlement in the area but we didn't expect to find an actual temple." Eirikh said there are hardly any remains of ritual build- ings of the period of the First Temple, which was destroyed in 586 B.C. by Nebuchadnez- zar II. The walls of the temple structure are massive with a wide east-facing entrance. They also found a square structure, probably an altar, in the temple courtyard. Dozens of sacred vessels, including ritual pottery vessels, were TRAIL ing tidbits and trivia about chocolate. The first section focuses on the Jewish connection to chocolate, which was origi- nally an economic one. For example, Prinz examines the debate about whether or not Jews created the chocolate industry in Bayonne, France, found at the site. Eirikh says what is striking about the find is that the site is so close to Jerusalem. "It is less than one day's walk from Jerusalem," she said. "We found some kind of cult practice so close to Jerusalem even though all the Prophets in the Bible fought against it. But we don't know exactly what they were wor- shipping." Among the finds were figu- rines, including small heads in human form with a fiat headdress and curling hair. There were also figurines of animals. "We can't know if it was idol worship or worshipping the Jewish God in a different way," Pablo Betzer, the district archaeologist of the Israel Antiquities Authority, told The Media Line. "But this did seem to be part of some ritual." The finds were in the modern Israeli town of Motza, which archaeologists believe is the Biblical "Mozah" mentioned in the Book of Joshua. Netzer also said the large number of objects found, as Jews and chocolate in the 17th century. She then discusses the colonial period in the New World, first in New Spain and then North America. Her focus is on Jews with Sephardic background: those who remained as Con- versos under Spanish rule and those who reclaimed their Jewish heritage in less religiously restrictive areas. Prinz also explores the con- nection of chocolate coins to two difficult religious holidays: Christmas and Chanukah. After exploring the role of chocolate in the liberation of Europe after World War II, she then heads to Middle East to examine the history of the Israeli chocolate industry. Part two of "On the Choco- late Trail" has a general and broader focus. Prinz looks at the original meaning of chocolate in Mesoamerican religion before portraying its controversial conquest of Christianity. A particularly interesting religious note is found in the chapter on the Quaker chocolate industry: Quakers began making chocolate because so few other industries were open to them, a familiar refrain from Jewish history. The final section discusses the ethics of chocolate, particularly the difficulty of finding fair-trade and fair- labor chocolate. Of course, what would a book about chocolate be without recipes? If those of_ fered at the opening of each chapter don't satisfy your chocolate cravings, the index presents seven additional ones. Featured are every- thing from chocolate cakes to chocolate drinks. Prinz well as a considerable number of silos, means the site was also likely to have been used as a storehouse, run by high- ranking officials, for Jerusa- lem's grain supplies. Italso explainswhy prophets and kings, such as Isaiah and Hezekiah, attacked the idea of worshipping outside of Jerusa- lem. They eventually abolished all ritual sites and concentrated practice solely in the Temple. "The finds recently discov- ered at Tel Motza provide rare archaeological evidence for the existence of temples and ritual also includes "A Consumer's Guide to Buying Ethically Produced Chocolate" and, for those looking to follow their own chocolate trail, a listing of "Chocolate Museums and Tours Around the World." My favorite parts focus on interesting or unusual facts about chocolate. While in contemporary times, we tend to think of chocolate as a food, it was originally served as a drink. The liquid version was addictive, as shown by the numerous Catholics who could not sit through a mass without resorting to a quick fix during the service. The enclosures in the Kingdom of Judah in general and in the Jerusalem region in particular," Eirikh said. During this period Jews were divided between the Kingdom of Judah in the area of Jerusa- lem, and the Kingdom of Israel, farther north. On a scale of 1-10, with 10 being the most important, how significant is this current discovery? 'Tdsaya9or evena 10," said Betzer. "This will lead to a lot of new research on the time of the Bible." certainty of it? What about diseases not curable now but which may be cured by the time the child reaches adult- hood? When, if ever, is the right time to tell a child he or she has a genetic predis- position toward a particular disease? It likely will be the most contentious social issue of the next decade, predicts Arthur Caplan, director of the Divi- sion of Medical Ethics at NYU Langone Medical Center. "Anyone who thinks that information that could lead to abortion isn't going to be controversial has been asleep since Roe v. Wade," Caplan said. According to Orthodox Judaism's interpretations of Jewish law, abortion is permissible only when the mother's health is at risk. The Conservative movement agrees, but its position in- cludes other exceptions. "Our real concern will be massive increases in the number of abortions," said Rabbi Moshe Tendler, profes- sor of bioethics at Yeshiva University. "You have a young couple, 22, 23, 24 years old, and they don't plan to have more than two or three chil- dren. Why take a defective child? I call it the perfect baby syndrome. The perfect baby does not exist." Rabbi Avram Reisner, a bioethicist on the Conserva- tive movement's Committee of Law and Standards, says abortion by whim is clearly prohibited. "Judaism is not pro-life," said Reisner, the spiritu- al leader at Congregation Chevrei Tzedek in Baltimore. "Jewish law allows abortion. And it is not pro-choice. It is concerned with managing the health of the mother. It does not support abortion as a parental whim." The Reform movement, though adamantly pro- choice, has a similar position. "Abortion should not take place for anything other than a serious reason," said Kno- bel of the Spertus Institute, "hopefully in consultation with a religious or ethical adviser." As far as Jewish ethics are concerned, prenatal whole genome sequencing has some elements in common with current genetic testing. Embryos of Ashkenazi Jews routinely are tested for such diseases as Tay-Sachs and the breast cancer genes BRCA--two illnesses dispro- portionately common among Ashkenazim. In haredi Orthodox com- munities where arranged marriages are common, matchmakers routinely con- sult databases that hold genet- ic information anonymously to see whether a match would face a genetic obstacle. That practice, and genetic testing during pregnancy, has prac- tically eliminated Tay-Sachs disease in the American Ash- kenazi community, according to Michael Broyde, professor at the Emory University law school and a member of the Beth Din of America, an Or- thodox rabbinical court. The difference between prenatal sequencing and current genetic testing is the amount of information and its usefulness. Current tests look for specific genetic disor- ders. Prenatal sequencing is a fishing expedition, looking at everything. At present, the informa- tion is of limited use. No one knows what 90 percent of genes do, and it usually takes more than one gene to do anything. Furthermore, genes are not destiny: Just because one has the genes Memorial University of Newfoundland A microscope look at the human chromosomes. for certain diseases, such as coronary heart disease, does not mean one will get it. "All genetic stuff is proba- bilistic," Caplan said. Some say that raises the question of whether Jews should be undergoing genome sequencing at all. "Just because you can get the whole genome, why do that?" asked Rabbi Elliot Dorff, chairman of the Con- servative movement's Com- mittee on Law and Standards. "How much do you want to find out and how much doyou want to share with the couple, and later with the child? Just because you can doesn't mean you should." The operative question, he notes, is whether it will cure or detect a serious disease. "With all questions of this type, the law doesn't ask how something is being done; it asks what we are accomplish- ing," Broyde said. "If sequenc- ing makes people healthier, it's a good thing. If it's going to make people ill, it's sinning." Knobel says, "We need what I call an ethics of anticipa- tion. We need a serious set of conversations about the implications of using the new technology, about how we can understand the values and ethics and come to grips with what it means in the long term." BALTIMORE (JTA)--Ex- pectant mothers long have faced the choice of finding out the gender of their child while still in the womb. But what if parents could get a list of all the genes and chromosomes of their unborn children, forecasting every- thing from possible autism and future genetic diseases to intelligence level and eye color? The technology to do just that--prenatalwhole genome sequencing, which can detect all 20,000 to 25,000 genes in the genome from fetal blood present in the mother's blood- stream--is already in labora- tories. While not yet available in clinical settings because of the cost, once the price falls below $1,000 it is likely to become common, according to a report by the Hastings Center, a nonpartisan bioeth- ics research institute. With it will come a host of Jewish ethical dilemmas. "We need a serious set of conversations about the implications of this new tech- nology," said Peter Knobel, a Reform rabbi who teaches bio- ethics at the Spertus Center in Chicago and is the senior rabbi at the city's Temple Sholom. How will parents react to a pregnancy destined to pro- duce a child with an unwanted condition? What do parents do when genetic sequencing shows a predisposition for a deadly disease but not a By Joel N. Shurkin debate over whether or not  what she calls her"cho-dar" Prenatal whole genome sequencing technology raises Jewish ethical questions chocolate was a liquid or solid played a role in the rituals of i Crypto-Jews. One is allowed to drink during Catholic fast days, but not on Jewish ones, so Crypto-Jews looked for ex- cuses not to drink chocolate (chocolate radar) to decide which areas to visit and explore. While that means this will not be the defini- tive book about chocolate and religion, it is certainly a fun one to read. on those holy days. When discussing choco- late coins for Chanukah, Prinz notes that coins given to Yemenite Jewish children were used to buy red food dye and sugar to make a holiday wine. She also mentions that Israelis not only drink liquid chocolate and eat chocolate candy, they put a chocolate spread on their bread, serv- ing as a much sweeter ver- sion of jam or peanut butter. "On the Chocolate Trail" focuses on the author's travels and her desire to uncover little known facts about chocolate. Prinz uses PAGE 2A HERITAGE FLORIDA JEWISH NEWS, JANUARY 4, 2013 By Linda Gradstein The Media Line JERUSALEM--"They paved paradise, put up a parking lot," or in this case a highway. When Israel's National Roads Co. wanted to expand the main Tel Aviv-Jerusalem highway, they decided to first carry out an excavation to make sure they would not be paving over important archaeological finds. "This was a total surprise," Anna Eirikh, the director of the excavation told The Media By Rabbi Rachel Esserman The (Vestal, N.Y.) Reporter Jews and chocolate: Is there a connection? It's not unusual for Judaic scholars to pick offbeat subjects. In recent years, I've reviewed works about Jews and coffee, Jews and bagels, and Jews and ostrich feathers. So why not a book about Jews and chocolate? In "On the Chocolate Trail: A Delicious Adventure Connecting Jews, Religions, History, Travel, Rituals and Recipes to the Magic of Cacao" (Jewish Lights Publishing), Rabbi Deborah R. Prinz follows the history of chocolate and religion to North and South America, Europe and Israel. Her work is less a scholarly exploration than a quick, sweet (pun intended) look at interest- New archaeological finds shed light on First Temple period Line. "We knew there was a large Iron Age settlement in the area but we didn't expect to find an actual temple." Eirikh said there are hardly any remains of ritual build- ings of the period of the First Temple, which was destroyed in 586 B.C. by Nebuchadnez- zar II. The walls of the temple structure are massive with a wide east-facing entrance. They also found a square structure, probably an altar, in the temple courtyard. Dozens of sacred vessels, including ritual pottery vessels, were TRAIL ing tidbits and trivia about chocolate. The first section focuses on the Jewish connection to chocolate, which was origi- nally an economic one. For example, Prinz examines the debate about whether or not Jews created the chocolate industry in Bayonne, France, found at the site. Eirikh says what is striking about the find is that the site is so close to Jerusalem. "It is less than one day's walk from Jerusalem," she said. "We found some kind of cult practice so close to Jerusalem even though all the Prophets in the Bible fought against it. But we don't know exactly what they were wor- shipping." Among the finds were figu- rines, including small heads in human form with a fiat headdress and curling hair. There were also figurines of animals. "We can't know if it was idol worship or worshipping the Jewish God in a different way," Pablo Betzer, the district archaeologist of the Israel Antiquities Authority, told The Media Line. "But this did seem to be part of some ritual." The finds were in the modern Israeli town of Motza, which archaeologists believe is the Biblical "Mozah" mentioned in the Book of Joshua. Netzer also said the large number of objects found, as Jews and chocolate in the 17th century. She then discusses the colonial period in the New World, first in New Spain and then North America. Her focus is on Jews with Sephardic background: those who remained as Con- versos under Spanish rule and those who reclaimed their Jewish heritage in less religiously restrictive areas. Prinz also explores the con- nection of chocolate coins to two difficult religious holidays: Christmas and Chanukah. After exploring the role of chocolate in the liberation of Europe after World War II, she then heads to Middle East to examine the history of the Israeli chocolate industry. Part two of "On the Choco- late Trail" has a general and broader focus. Prinz looks at the original meaning of chocolate in Mesoamerican religion before portraying its controversial conquest of Christianity. A particularly interesting religious note is found in the chapter on the Quaker chocolate industry: Quakers began making chocolate because so few other industries were open to them, a familiar refrain from Jewish history. The final section discusses the ethics of chocolate, particularly the difficulty of finding fair-trade and fair- labor chocolate. Of course, what would a book about chocolate be without recipes? If those of_ fered at the opening of each chapter don't satisfy your chocolate cravings, the index presents seven additional ones. Featured are every- thing from chocolate cakes to chocolate drinks. Prinz well as a considerable number of silos, means the site was also likely to have been used as a storehouse, run by high- ranking officials, for Jerusa- lem's grain supplies. Italso explainswhy prophets and kings, such as Isaiah and Hezekiah, attacked the idea of worshipping outside of Jerusa- lem. They eventually abolished all ritual sites and concentrated practice solely in the Temple. "The finds recently discov- ered at Tel Motza provide rare archaeological evidence for the existence of temples and ritual also includes "A Consumer's Guide to Buying Ethically Produced Chocolate" and, for those looking to follow their own chocolate trail, a listing of "Chocolate Museums and Tours Around the World." My favorite parts focus on interesting or unusual facts about chocolate. While in contemporary times, we tend to think of chocolate as a food, it was originally served as a drink. The liquid version was addictive, as shown by the numerous Catholics who could not sit through a mass without resorting to a quick fix during the service. The enclosures in the Kingdom of Judah in general and in the Jerusalem region in particular," Eirikh said. During this period Jews were divided between the Kingdom of Judah in the area of Jerusa- lem, and the Kingdom of Israel, farther north. On a scale of 1-10, with 10 being the most important, how significant is this current discovery? 'Tdsaya9or evena 10," said Betzer. "This will lead to a lot of new research on the time of the Bible." certainty of it? What about diseases not curable now but which may be cured by the time the child reaches adult- hood? When, if ever, is the right time to tell a child he or she has a genetic predis- position toward a particular disease? It likely will be the most contentious social issue of the next decade, predicts Arthur Caplan, director of the Divi- sion of Medical Ethics at NYU Langone Medical Center. "Anyone who thinks that information that could lead to abortion isn't going to be controversial has been asleep since Roe v. Wade," Caplan said. According to Orthodox Judaism's interpretations of Jewish law, abortion is permissible only when the mother's health is at risk. The Conservative movement agrees, but its position in- cludes other exceptions. "Our real concern will be massive increases in the number of abortions," said Rabbi Moshe Tendler, profes- sor of bioethics at Yeshiva University. "You have a young couple, 22, 23, 24 years old, and they don't plan to have more than two or three chil- dren. Why take a defective child? I call it the perfect baby syndrome. The perfect baby does not exist." Rabbi Avram Reisner, a bioethicist on the Conserva- tive movement's Committee of Law and Standards, says abortion by whim is clearly prohibited. "Judaism is not pro-life," said Reisner, the spiritu- al leader at Congregation Chevrei Tzedek in Baltimore. "Jewish law allows abortion. And it is not pro-choice. It is concerned with managing the health of the mother. It does not support abortion as a parental whim." The Reform movement, though adamantly pro- choice, has a similar position. "Abortion should not take place for anything other than a serious reason," said Kno- bel of the Spertus Institute, "hopefully in consultation with a religious or ethical adviser." As far as Jewish ethics are concerned, prenatal whole genome sequencing has some elements in common with current genetic testing. Embryos of Ashkenazi Jews routinely are tested for such diseases as Tay-Sachs and the breast cancer genes BRCA--two illnesses dispro- portionately common among Ashkenazim. In haredi Orthodox com- munities where arranged marriages are common, matchmakers routinely con- sult databases that hold genet- ic information anonymously to see whether a match would face a genetic obstacle. That practice, and genetic testing during pregnancy, has prac- tically eliminated Tay-Sachs disease in the American Ash- kenazi community, according to Michael Broyde, professor at the Emory University law school and a member of the Beth Din of America, an Or- thodox rabbinical court. The difference between prenatal sequencing and current genetic testing is the amount of information and its usefulness. Current tests look for specific genetic disor- ders. Prenatal sequencing is a fishing expedition, looking at everything. At present, the informa- tion is of limited use. No one knows what 90 percent of genes do, and it usually takes more than one gene to do anything. Furthermore, genes are not destiny: Just because one has the genes Memorial University of Newfoundland A microscope look at the human chromosomes. for certain diseases, such as coronary heart disease, does not mean one will get it. "All genetic stuff is proba- bilistic," Caplan said. Some say that raises the question of whether Jews should be undergoing genome sequencing at all. "Just because you can get the whole genome, why do that?" asked Rabbi Elliot Dorff, chairman of the Con- servative movement's Com- mittee on Law and Standards. "How much do you want to find out and how much doyou want to share with the couple, and later with the child? Just because you can doesn't mean you should." The operative question, he notes, is whether it will cure or detect a serious disease. "With all questions of this type, the law doesn't ask how something is being done; it asks what we are accomplish- ing," Broyde said. "If sequenc- ing makes people healthier, it's a good thing. If it's going to make people ill, it's sinning." Knobel says, "We need what I call an ethics of anticipa- tion. We need a serious set of conversations about the implications of using the new technology, about how we can understand the values and ethics and come to grips with what it means in the long term." BALTIMORE (JTA)--Ex- pectant mothers long have faced the choice of finding out the gender of their child while still in the womb. But what if parents could get a list of all the genes and chromosomes of their unborn children, forecasting every- thing from possible autism and future genetic diseases to intelligence level and eye color? The technology to do just that--prenatalwhole genome sequencing, which can detect all 20,000 to 25,000 genes in the genome from fetal blood present in the mother's blood- stream--is already in labora- tories. While not yet available in clinical settings because of the cost, once the price falls below $1,000 it is likely to become common, according to a report by the Hastings Center, a nonpartisan bioeth- ics research institute. With it will come a host of Jewish ethical dilemmas. "We need a serious set of conversations about the implications of this new tech- nology," said Peter Knobel, a Reform rabbi who teaches bio- ethics at the Spertus Center in Chicago and is the senior rabbi at the city's Temple Sholom. How will parents react to a pregnancy destined to pro- duce a child with an unwanted condition? What do parents do when genetic sequencing shows a predisposition for a deadly disease but not a By Joel N. Shurkin debate over whether or not  what she calls her"cho-dar" Prenatal whole genome sequencing technology raises Jewish ethical questions chocolate was a liquid or solid played a role in the rituals of i Crypto-Jews. One is allowed to drink during Catholic fast days, but not on Jewish ones, so Crypto-Jews looked for ex- cuses not to drink chocolate (chocolate radar) to decide which areas to visit and explore. While that means this will not be the defini- tive book about chocolate and religion, it is certainly a fun one to read. on those holy days. When discussing choco- late coins for Chanukah, Prinz notes that coins given to Yemenite Jewish children were used to buy red food dye and sugar to make a holiday wine. She also mentions that Israelis not only drink liquid chocolate and eat chocolate candy, they put a chocolate spread on their bread, serv- ing as a much sweeter ver- sion of jam or peanut butter. "On the Chocolate Trail" focuses on the author's travels and her desire to uncover little known facts about chocolate. Prinz uses